I'm not normally looking to make changes like this... who am I kidding? Of course I am. I'm a speed freak. I love pushing my technology to the limit.
Thanks to reddit user erythrocytes64, you can make a simple change to a Chrome flag.
Go into Chrome and surf to chrome://flags/#max-tiles-for-interest-area. Set that to 512 instead of the default (default is usually 128). At the bottom, it will have a Relaunch Now button. Click that.
So, was my real-world performance that much better on my Nexus 5? I'm not really that sure. I don't do a TON of browsing using my Chrome browser. I usually digest most of my news and information via Twitter, with an occasional click-through to a web page that is referenced.
Well, I clicked through to an article and scrolled down as a test. Wow, very very fast. I did a test between Chrome and Chrome Beta on my phone and found that the Chrome browser that I made the changes on scrolled much faster.